A noc Libya article
The danger of the worlds oil stocks growing thinner and thinner by the day is a real and recognised problem. At present 93 million barrels of oil and liquid fuels are used per day worldwide. That sums up to a staggering 34 billion barrels a year. That equates to 5.4 trillion litres of oil per year. There is no wonder as to why the oil prices are rising so rapidly and why any national oil company is trying to maximise it’s profits now before oil becomes a really scarce fuel source.
Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons formed over millions of years along with impurities such as sulphur. It is found in liquid form in standard surface temperatures and pressures. It’s characteristics such as density are highly variable depending on the length of the hydrocarbon.
The destination of oil
In the next five years, it is estimated that almost half of all global oil demand growth will be coming from china and that trend is estimated to continue to the year 2040. This is mostly due to the growing oil demand in the transportation sector in China and India. In OCED countries the growth in oil demand is estimated to decline due to government policies on fuel efficiency and the high rate of vehicle ownership already present in those countries.
Refining crude oil
Crude oil extracted from various geological sources is separated by an elaborate refining method which produces several end products. The crude oil is initially heated to a temperature of 400°C and as the oil (gas state) rises up through the chambers in the refinery, different oils drain off as they return to the liquid state whilst those with shorter carbon chains stay in the gas formation and continue up the chambers until it gets cool enough for a certain oil to return to the liquid state and drain off. A few main end products are listed below:
This is the heaviest of all the hydrocarbons that are separated and is drained off from the bottom of the separation chamber. Bitumen is primarily used in tarmac but can be used as a waterproofing material.
Fuel oils are separated in the chamber above that of bitumen since their carbon chain is slightly shorter, they are most commonly used in boilers, power stations etc…..
Separated from the crude oil mixture one chamber above that of Fuel oils, diesel is a common fuel for compression engines such as those in cars and lorries. A diesel that goes by the name of ‘gas oil’ can be used for domestic heating.
Extracted at around 200°C, one chamber above that of diesel, kerosene is mostly used as Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF). Kerosene can also be used for heating and cooking oil.
Petrol is drained off from the refining chambers at 150°C after kerosene and is a common fuel used in automobiles.
Refinery gases are the lightest of the oils in crude oil and never reach liquid form in the refining process. They can be used as blanketing gases in the refinery or as fuel for gas lit lamps and barbeque gas canisters etc….
Recent developments in the oil sector
America reduces buying oil from the middle east, this caused the oil stock prices to fall drastically. It is estimated that by 202 nearly half of all the crude oil in America will be produce at home whilst 82% will come that side of the Atlantic, while by 2035 oil from the middle east into America could be nonexistent.
What formed oil?
Oil was formed over millions of years under high pressures and temperatures. The fossilised remains of animals and trees from millions of years ago are what eventually become oil when subjected to the conditions mentioned above. A great thing would be if we were able to harvest some dinosaur stem cells to regrow one for scientific purposes.
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If you’re wondering what national oil corporation is in Arabic it is المؤسسة الوطنية للنفط